Virtual Conference
Mental Health 2022

Maria Spanoudaki

Brunel University , London

Title: Predictors of Inner Wellbeing in a COVID-19 era in the UK


The aim of this research was to understand why individuals differ in inner wellbeing, using a combination of variables that were derived from Maslow’s satisfaction of needs theory and other constructs related to mental health (e.g. anxiety and depression). Two-hundred thirteen participants took part in Study 1 which took place pre-COVID-
19 pandemic and 397 participants took part in Study 2 which took place during COVID-19 pandemic in the UK. Participants completed an online survey consisting of validated questionnaires to measure anxiety, depression, Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, and inner wellbeing. Results from study 1 showed that safety and security needs, esteem needs, self-actualisation needs, and depression were significant predictors of inner wellbeing pre-COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, age, gender and ethnicity did not explain inner wellbeing. Additionally, results from study 2 showed that belongingness needs, esteem needs, and depression were significant predictors of inner wellbeing during COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, gender and ethnicity did not explain inner wellbeing, whereas age did. These results highlight how individual’s inner wellbeing was affected by their needs during the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, mental health providers can have a better understanding of individuals’ needs that could improve their inner wellbeing or even prevent deterioration of wellbeing and mental health.


Maria Spanoudaki is a Doctoral Researcher, and a member of the Centre for Culture and Evolution at Brunel University London. Her research focuses on inner wellbeing, Maslow's hierarchy of needs, mental health and cultural values. Her samples are drawn from the UK and Greek population, mainly during COVID-19, using an online quantitative survey. She is also an experienced educator, holding the AFHEA and currently working as a Student Academic Skills Adviser and as a Graduate Teaching Assistant for the Division of Psychology at Brunel University London.